14 August 2002

Neue Fachzeitschrift “Journal of Industrial Hemp” mit erster Ausgabe

Im Jahr 2001 hat der bekannte US-Fachverlag The Haworth Press den Nutzhanfteil der Fachzeitschrift “Journal of the International Hemp Association” übernommen, um daraus die neue Fachzeitschrift “Journal of Industrial Hemp” zu entwickeln.

Zuvor hatte “The Haworth Press” bereits die Fachzeitschrift “Cannabis and Cannabinoids – Pharmacology, Toxicology, and Therapeutic Potential” herausgegeben, deren Inhalte ursprünglich ebenfalls im “Journal of the International Hemp Association” integriert waren.

Nun ist die erste Ausgabe von “Journal of Industrial Hemp” erschienen. Im Folgenden Text finden Sie alle Autoren, Beitragstitel sowie Kurzfassungen (abstracts) dieser ersten Ausgabe. Zudem können Sie unter www.haworthpressinc.com/store/SampleText/J237.pdf die vollständige, 146 Seiten dicke, erste Ausgabe als PDF-Datei runterladen (Achtung! Lange Ladezeiten).

Das “Journal of Industrial Hemp” wird zweimal pro Jahr erscheinen, ein Abonnement ist ab 48 USD/Jahr zu haben. Weitere Informationen unter: www.haworthpressinc.com/store/product.asp?sku=J237.

Journal of Industrial Hemp

Volume 7, Number 1, 2002

JOURNAL OF INDUSTRIAL HEMP™ (Print ISSN: 1537-7881; Electronic ISSN: 1537- 789X) is published at The Haworth Press, Inc., 10 Alice Street, Binghamton, NY 13904-1580 USA. The Journal of Industrial Hemp™ is the successor title to Journal of the International Hemp Association (formerly published by the IHA), which changed title after Vol. 6, No. 2, 1999).



Welcome to the Journal of Industrial Hemp

Robert Clarke, David Pate, David Watson, Hayo van der Werf


Karl Hillig


The Applications of Molecular Markers in Genetics and Breeding of Hemp

Giuseppe Mandolino, Paolo Ranalli

Molecular markers were employed to the characterization and analysis of hemp genetic structure by using RAPD technique. The results are presented about the statistical treatment of the molecular data. In addition, markers tightly linked to the male sex and their applications are discussed, and a short protocol for direct amplification of such markers from hemp tissue is provided. A molecular map of hemp, including a number of RAPD markers obtained from a progeny of a cross between a female Carmagnola plant and a monoecious accession is also presented. Finally, the state of the art of sex genetics in hemp and the possibilities of developing molecular markers linked to different hemp chemotypes are discussed.

KEYWORDS. DNA markers, sex-linked markers, monoeciousness, molecular map, chemotypes

Epidemiology of the Hemp Borer, Grapholita delineana Walker (Lepidoptera: Oleuthreutidae), a Pest of Cannabis sativa L.

John M. McPartland

The hemp borer, Grapholita delineana, is newly described from feral hemp in Vermont, USA. It may pose a serious pest should hemp cultivation resume in the USA. A similar situation occurred in the 1960s, when G. delineana suddenly became a serious pest in southeastern Europe. Evidence suggests the pest was imported from its native range via infested hemp seed. Larvae of G. delineana bore into stalks and destroy fiber, or they infest flowering tops and destroy seed. The larvae and adults are described, along with their life history, geographic range, and host range. Careful phytosanitary measures can prevent the spread of G. delineana into quarantine areas, such as western Europe, Canada, and the entire southern hemisphere. Breeding hemp plants for resistance to G. delineana may prevent future epidemics. Vermont feral hemp appears to be more resistant to G. delineana than feral hemp growing in the Midwestern USA; the Vermont germplasm may have descended from plants imported in the 1830s, called Smyrna hemp, a western European landrace devoid of Chinese ancestry. Biological and chemical controls of G. delineana are described.

KEYWORDS. Control methods, differential diagnosis, geographic distribution, hemp borer, life history, taxonomy

Comparison of Enzymatically Separated Hemp and Nettle Fibre to Chemically Separated and Steam Exploded Hemp Fibre

J. Dreyer, J. Mssig, N. Koschke, W.-D. Ibenthal, H. Harig

Hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) and nettle (Urtica dioica L.) are both attractive candidates for high fibre yields with little or no biocide requirement. Separation of fibre fine enough for quality yarns to make hemp fabric or blends has been achieved in Western Europe in the last decades only on a laboratory scale because process costs are high. In Hungary, Romania, the Ukraine and Poland a hemp processing industry has continued retting mainly by water processes. Search for a commercially and environmentally viable method led us also to explore enzymatic separation, which was initiated by various researchers in the late 1960s and 1970s. This involves the use of various enzymes that dissolve pectin and hemicellulose between the cell walls thus freeing the fibre bundles and fibres.

We tested various commercial and non commercial products (Rhm Enzyme GmbH and Novozymes AS/Bayer AG) and methods and then measured our results against samples of fibre separated by other methods using a Stelometer to determine tensile strength of fibre bundle collectives and OFDA (Optical Fiber Diameter Analyzer) to analyse fibre bundle width. Our results showed enzymatic separation capable of producing comparably fine and strong fibre suitable for quality textiles. These studies open the way for sustainable and local production of high value fibre with low impact on the environment.

KEYWORDS. Hemp, nettle, fibre separation, enzymatic degumming, hemp yarn and fabric, nettle yarn and fabric, Cannabis, Urtica

Reinforced Biocomposites from Flax and Hemp

Bodil Engberg Pallesen, Tom Lgstrup Andersen

Defibrated flax and hemp fibres form new compatible composites substituting cabinets, car-inner panels, etc. The aim is to produce composites from Danish flax and hemp that are competitive to composites reinforced with fibres such as polypropylene, glass fibre, and metals. The plant fibre composites can be used in many applications with different purposes.

The composites are based on a new process, where flax or hemp are defibrated into shortened fibres and subsequently formed into mats through a unique air-forming technique mixing the plant fibre and polymers in a strong web. The mats are then moulded in a hot-press for products in all kinds of shapes. The process is based on shortened fibres from flax and hemp. The stiffness of the composites and tensile strength properties are equal in all directions, and their values are higher than those of pure plastic composites. In the new Danish composites the tensile strength seems lower than in typical composites from flax and hemp, where mats are derived from carding followed by needle punching. The main advantage is the price as the composites based on mats from the shortened flax or hemp fibres can be produced much cheaper than carded mats from long fibres.

KEYWORDS. Plant fibre, flax, hemp, mat forming, press consolidation, thermoplastic composite, reinforced composite

Field Interview Schedule and Questionnaire for Investigating Cannabis Use

Robert C. Clarke

Cannabis is grown and processed for a wide variety of uses. Many plant parts are used as medicine for humans and livestock; whole seeds and seed oil are eaten by humans; seeds and leaves are fed to animals, seed oil and stalks are burned for fuel. Whole plants, leaves and wood have environmental uses and bark, fiber and seeds are also of ritual importance. This paper introduces an interview schedule and questionnaire for investigating Cannabis use.

KEYWORDS. Cannabis use, data collection, ethnobotany, field research, plant use, survey


The History of Hemp in Norway

Jan Bojer Vindheim

Around the year 1000 we may assume that hemp was grown in several places in Norway, but at all times the importation has been greater than local production. This article discusses the history of hemp in Norway and the many ways the plant has been used, including both ritual and common purposes.

KEYWORDS. Hemp, Norway, fibre, archaelogy

Hemp as Food at High Latitudes

J. C. Callaway

Hempseed offers a unique nutritional package, in terms of dietary oil, protein, vitamins and minerals, which can be produced at high latitudes (> 50 latitude). Hempseed oil is highly unsaturated and contains both essential fatty acids (linoleic acid and alpha-linolenic acid) in a nutritionally balanced ratio, in addition to considerable amounts of biochemically important gamma-linolenic acid (GLA) and stearidonic acid (SDA). The protein in hempseed is complete, in that it contains all of the essential amino acids in nutritionally significant amounts, and lacks the nutritional inhibiting factors found in soya. Hempseed could become a viable replacement for imported soya in Northern Europe, particularly as feed stock for animals.

KEYWORDS. Cannabis, hemp, essential fatty acids, linoleic acid, alpha-linolenic acid, GLA, SDA, vegetable protein, edestin, albumin

Natural Fibres in the European Automotive Industry

Michael Karus, Markus Kaup

In the eighties, studies carried out in Germany and the EU forecasted very large market potentials for composites from flax and other natural fibres. Although considerable research and development was carried out,1 the development of these markets proved far more difficult and long-term than previously expected. The ambitious German flax program, backed by substantial funding, did not survive these hard times. Only in recent years, did an actual industrial demand for natural fibres develop. Nowadays, the use of natural fibres in certain applications has already become a matter of course, something which no one had dared to expect only five years ago. The most important customer is the automotive industry.

KEYWORDS. Fibres, hemp, automotive industry, markets, composites,

Could Cannabis Provide an Answer to Climate Change?

Marc R. Deeley

The largely technocratic debate over the way humanity should respond to the now very real problem of global climate change has reached a critical point. Almost every legislative and technological option has been exploredat least theoreticallywithout any real progress being made in terms of actually addressing the situation and we are now at a stage where we do not have time to discuss the merits of wind power over nuclear power or how we can develop ways of freezing and storing the anthropocentrically generated excess of greenhouse gases in the atmosphereas president Bush recently suggested. This was the debate during the 1980sand unfortunately also the 90s when the representatives of world science on this issue, otherwise known as the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), were explaining to World leaders the (then) urgent requirement to take action. This article discusses the very real possibility that Cannabis could play a part in stabilizing a global environment.

KEYWORDS. Cannabis, climate change, environment

Hemp in Italy: A New Research Project

Paolo Ranalli

Traditionally, hemp is a plant very well suited to Italian pedo-climatic conditions. The textile fibre produced in the past was of the finest quality due to integrated selected local varieties, good agrotechnology and experienced retting techniques. Attempts to reintroduce this crop in Italy rely upon updating the chain of fibre production and its processing that lead to the textile and its derivatives. This article discusses a new research project designed to study production and utilization of the plant.

KEYWORDS. Hemp, fibre, genetics, processing

Finola Progress 2000-2001

Henry Gage

Fin-UK, Ltd. conducted agricultural trials with the Finola variety (previously known by the breeders code FIN 314) at several locations in Europe during the year 2000. Finola is currently completing its last year of Value for Cultivation and Use (VCU) testing in Finland, and will soon be put forward for inclusion on the EU list of approved hemp cultivars.

KEYWORDS. Finola, agricultural trials, hemp

Source: The Haworth Press, 08-2002.

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